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Commercial Code (Japan)

 

[English Translation of the Content and Articles 54, 479, 535, 536 and 541]

 

Part One             General Provisions

 

Chapter one        Application Principles

Chapter Two       Merchant

Chapter Three    Business Registration

Chapter Four      Commercial Name

Chapter Five       Commercial Ledger

Chapter Six         Trade Employees

Chapter Seven    Commercial Agent

 

Part Two              Companies

 

Chapter one        General Provisions

 

                            Article 54

(1)   A company shall be a juridical person.

(2)   The domicile of the company shall be the location of its principal office.

 

Chapter two        General Partnership Company

              Section 1             Formation

              Section 2             Internal Relations

              Section 3             External Relations

              Section 4             Memberfs Withdrawal from the Company

              Section 5             Dissolution

              Section 6             Liquidation

Chapter Three    Limited Partnership Company

Chapter Four      Joint Stock Corporation

              Section 1             Incorporation

              Section 2             Stocks

              Section 3             Organs of the Corporation

                            Subsection 1        General Meeting of Stockholders

                            Subsection 2        Directors and Board of Directors

                            Subsection 3        Auditor

Section 3             Issuance of New Shares

Section 3-2          New Shares Reservation Right

              Section 4             Accounting

              Section 5             Corporate Bond

                            Subsection 1        General Provisions

                            Subsection 2        Creditorsf Meeting

                            Subsection 3        Corporate Bond with New Shares Reservation Right

              Section 6             Amendment of Articles of Incorporation

Section 6-2          100% Parent Corporation

                            Subsection 1        Exchange of Shares

                            Subsection 2        Transfer of Shares

              Section 6-3          Division of Corporation

                            Subsection 1        Division by Incorporation

                            Subsection 2        Division by Succession

              Section 7             Corporate Reorganization

              Section 8             Dissolution

              Section 9             Liquidation

                            Subsection 1        General Provisions

                            Subsection 2        Special Liquidation

Chapter Five       [Repealed]

 

Chapter Six         Foreign Corporation

 

                            Article 479

(1)   If a foreign corporation is to conduct continual transactions in Japan, it shall be required to appoint a representative in Japan and to make registration and public announcement in connection with the corporation.

(2)   Except otherwise provided for in this article, the registration of a foreign corporation mentioned in the previous paragraph shall be subject to the provisions for registration and/or public announcement of the Japanese company of the same kind as or most similar to such foreign corporation.  In this case, if the foreign corporation does not establish an office in Japan, the domicile of the representative in Japan shall be considered as the place where the corporationfs office or branch is located, and the representative in Japan shall be considered as the branch of the corporation; if the foreign corporation establishes an office in Japan, that office shall be considered as the branch of the corporation.

(3)   As to the registration of a foreign corporation mentioned in Paragraph 1, the governing law of incorporation and the name and address of the representative in Japan shall be registered.  The same is applied to the means of public announcement under the provisions of Article 483-2 (1).

(4)–(8) [Not Translated]

 

Chapter Seven    Penalties

 

Part Three           Commercial Transactions

 

Chapter One       General Provisions

Chapter Two       Sale Transaction

Chapter Three    Account Current

Chapter Four      Anonymous Partnership

 

                            Article 535

Anonymous partnership agreement shall take effect on the basis of the capital contribution made by a contracting party for the business of the other party who has promised to distribute the earning from that business to the contributing party.

 

                            Article 536

(1)   The contribution made by the member of the anonymous partnership shall belong to the business proprietor.

(2)   No member of the anonymous partnership has rights or obligations to any third party with relation to the act by the business proprietor.

 

Article 541

When the anonymous partnership agreement has terminated, the business proprietor shall have to return the contribution amount to the member of the anonymous partnership.  However, if the capital contribution has reduced by the loss, the return of the remaining balance of the contribution shall be sufficient.

 

Chapter Five       Brokerage

Chapter Six         Wholesale Business

Chapter Seven    Forwarding Agency

Chapter Eight     Carriage Business

              Section 1             Carriage of Goods

              Section 2             Carriage of Passengers

Chapter Nine      Deposition

              Section 1             General Provisions

              Section 2             Warehouse Business

Chapter Ten        Insurance

              Section 1             Damage Insurance

                            Subsection 1        General Provisions

                            Subsection 2        Fire Insurance

                            Subsection 3        Freight Insurance

              Section 2             Life Insurance

 

Part Four            Marine Commerce

 

Chapter One       Vessel and Ship Owner

Chapter Two       Crew

              Section 1             Captain

              Section 2             [Repealed]

Chapter Three    Carriage

              Section 1             Carriage of Goods

                            Subsection 1        General Provisions

                            Subsection 2        Bill of Lading

              Section 2             Carriage of Passengers

Chapter Four      Marine Loss

Chapter Five       Salvage

Chapter Six         Insurance

Chapter Seven    Ship Creditors

 

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