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Civil Code (Japan)


[English Translation of the Content and Articles 1, 2, 36, 240, 308 and 613]


Part One             General Provisions


                                          Article 1

(1)   Private rights shall be subject to the principle of public welfare.

(2)   Rights and Obligations shall be exercised or performed in a good faith and in compliance with the bona fide principle.

(3)   Abuse of rights shall not be allowed.


Article 2

This law shall be construed on the basis of the dignity of individuals and the substantial equality of the both sexes.



              Chapter One                    Natural Person

                            Section 1             Enjoyment of Private Rights

                            Section 2             Capacity

                            Section 3             Address

                            Section 4             Disappearance


              Chapter Two                     Juridical Person

                            Section 1             Formation of Juridical Person


                                          Article 36

(1)     As to foreign juridical persons, the formation of any foreign juridical persons other than countries, administrative districts of the country and business companies shall not be allowed, unless they are allowed to form under the provisions of law or any international treaty.

(2)     Foreign juridical persons allowed under the provisions of the previous paragraph shall have the same private rights as the same kind of juridical persons formed in Japan, except for the rights that cannot be enjoyed by foreigners and/or in the case where there are special provisions in any law or international treaty.


                            Section 2             Administration of Juridical Person

                            Section 3             Dissolution of Juridical Person

                            Section 4             Supplementary Provisions

                            Section 5             Punitive Provisions


              Chapter Three                  Object


              Chapter Four                    Juristic Act

                            Section 1             General Provisions

                            Section 2             Manifestation of Intention

                            Section 3             Proxy

                            Section 4             Invalidity and Cancellation

                            Section 5             Conditions and Time Limit


              Chapter Five                     Period of Time


              Chapter Six                       Prescription

                            Section 1             General Provisions

                            Section 2             Acquisitive Prescription

                            Section 3             Extinctive Prescription


Part Two              Real Rights


              Chapter One                     General Provisions


              Chapter Two                     Right of Possession

                            Section 1             Acquisition of Right of Possession

                            Section 2             Effect of Right of Possession

                            Section 3             Extinction of Right of Possession

                            Section 4             Quasi-possession


              Chapter Three                  Ownership Right

                            Section 1             Limitation of Ownership Right

                            Section 2             Acquisition of Ownership Right


                            Article 240

The finder of a lost article shall acquire the ownership of that lost article if the owner of that lost article has been unknown for six months after the announcement under the provisions of the special law.


                            Section 3             Co-ownership


              Chapter Four                    Surface Right

              Chapter Five                     Permanent Tenant Right

              Chapter Six                       Easement

              Chapter Seven                  Retention Right


              Chapter Eight                   Preferential Rights

                            Section 1             General Provisions

                            Section 2             Various Preferential Rights

                                          Subsection 1        Ordinary Preferential Rights


                            Article 308

Preferential right for the salary of the employee shall exist for the last six monthsf salary to be received by that employee of the debtor.


                                          Subsection 2        Preferential Rights of Movables

                                          Subsection 3        Preferential Rights of Immovables

                            Section 3             Rank of Preferential Rights

                            Section 4             Effect of Preferential Rights


              Chapter Nine                    Pledge

                            Section 1             General Provisions

                            Section 2             Pledge on Movables

                            Section 3             Pledge on Immovables

                            Section 4             Pledge on Rights


              Chapter Ten                      Hypothecation

                            Section 1             General Provisions

                            Section 2             Effect of Hypothecation

                            Section 3             Extinction of Hypothecation

                            Section 4             Maximal Hypothec


Part Three           Claims or Creditorfs Rights


              Chapter One                    General Provisions

                            Section 1             Purpose of Claims

                            Section 2             Effect of Claims

                            Section 3             Claims to Plural Parties

                                          Subsection 1        General Provisions

                                          Subsection 2        Indivisible Obligation

                                          Subsection 3        Joint Obligation

                                          Subsection 4        Cautionary Obligation

                            Section 4             Transfer of Creditorfs Rights

                            Section 5             Extinction of Creditorfs Rights

                                          Subsection 1        Fulfillment

                                          Subsection 2        Setoff

                                          Subsection 3        Renewal

                                          Subsection 4        Release

                                          Subsection 5        Merger


Chapter Two                     Contract

              Section 1             General Provisions

                            Subsection 1        Formation of Contract

                            Subsection 2        Effect of Contract

                            Subsection 3        Revocation of Contract

              Section 2             Gift

              Section 3             Sale Transaction

                            Subsection 1        General Provisions

                            Subsection 2        Effect of Sale Transaction

                            Subsection 3        Repurchase

              Section 4             Exchange

              Section 5             Loan for Consumption

              Section 6             Loan for Use

              Section 7             Lease

                            Subsection 1        General Provisions

                            Subsection 2        Effect of Lease


Article 613

(1)   If the lessee legally subleases the leased object, the sublessee shall have obligations directly to the lessor.  In this case, the sublessee cannot oppose to the lessor on the ground that he has previously paid the rent to the lessee.

(2)   The provisions of the previous paragraph shall not prevent the lessor from exercising his rights to the lessee.


                            Subsection 3        Termination of Lease

              Section 8             Employment

              Section 9             Undertaking

              Section 10           Delegation

              Section 11            Deposition

              Section 12           Civil Partnership

              Section 13           Life Annuity

              Section 14           Conciliation


Chapter Three                  Administration

Chapter Four                    Unjust Enrichment

Chapter Five                     Wrongful Act


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